English verbs are divided into five groups:
1. action transitive verbs, which can form a direct relationship with a noun, called a direct object,
2. intransitive action verbs, which cannot adhere directly to a noun and need the help of a preposition,
3. the verb to be, which as the main verb relates a grammatical subject to an adjective, another noun or a phrase, and as an auxiliary verb forms the progressive tense and the passive voice.
4. link verbs, which link a grammatical subject with an adjective, another noun or a phrase.
The fifth group of English verbs comprises:
5. auxiliary verbs, which join with the main verbs to form verb tenses; ask questions; create negatives; and show various conditions, skills and obligations.
Basically there are four forms of the verb in English. These are:
The infinitive form of the English verb is the word you would normally look up in the dictionary, e.g. ‘write’. We use the base infinitive, without the word for, to form many of the tenses. The present tense of a single word ‘I write, you write’ uses the infinitive, the only exception is the third person singular, which adds a -s, -ies or -is ‘he writes’. The past tense has its own form ‘wrote’. Then we form the future time by joining the infinitive base with ‘will’ as in ‘you will write, she will write’.
The finite form of the English verb is the verb that appears in its conjugated states. The finite verb reveals when something happens.
Each English verb has a present participle. To form it, we must add -ing. You may have to release a silent ending -e (writing) or double a final consonant. The verb -ing appears in the conjugation of the verb when it joins with the verb to be to form the six progressive tenses ‘We are writing a book’. But the verb -ing does much more when it forms a phrase. It acts as a name (gerund) ‘Writing a book is fun’, as an adjective ‘The guy writing that book is crazy’, or sometimes as an adverb (He went crazy writing the book’. It also serves as an adjective of a word (The book won an award for writing’.)
Each English verb also has a past participle. For regular verbs, add -ed (or sometimes -d or -t). Sometimes you must duplicate a final consonant ‘occurred’. The past participle also appears in the conjugation of verbs, but does not play one role as the present participle, but two roles. It joins the verb to have and form the perfect tenses ‘He has written a book’. It joins the verb ‘to be’ to form the passive voice ‘That book was written by me’. In addition, as we saw with the infinitive and the present participle, the past participle forms the phrase past participle, which can act only as an adjective ‘Written in 2001, the book sold millions of copies’. The past participle also serves as an adjective of a word ‘the written agreement’.
Below you can see all of this. Check the English verbs against the grammatical tenses for which they are used.
Simple present: She writes every day.
Present progressive: She is writing right now.
Simple past: She wrote last night.
Past progressive: She was writing when he called.
Simple future: She will write tomorrow.
Future progressive: She will be writing when you arrive.
Present perfect: She has written Chapter 1.
Present perfect progressive: She has been writing for 2 hours.
Past perfect: She had written Chapter 3 before she started Chapter 4.
Past perfect progressive: She had been writing for 2 hours before her friends arrived.
Future perfect: She will have written Chapter 4 before she writes Chapter 5.
Future perfect progressive: She will have been writing for 2 hours by the time her friends come over.
Zero conditional (general truths/general habits).
Example: If I have time, I write every day.
First conditional (possible or likely things in the future).
Example: If I have time, I will write every day.
Second conditional (impossible things in the present/unlikely in the future).
Example: If I had time, I would write every day.
Third conditional (things that did not happen in the past and their imaginary results)
Example: If I had had time, I would have written every day.
Subjunctive: This form is sometimes used in that-clauses that are the object of certain verbs or follow certain adjectives. The form of the subjective is the simple form of the verb. It is the same for all persons and number.
Example: I recommend that he study every day.
Example: It is important that every